9 Hypothesis

  • Ø9.1 Introduction
  • Ø9.2 Definition of Hypothesis

































  • Ø 9.3 Importance of Hypothesis



































  • Ø 9.4 Types of Hypothesis











































  • Ø 9.5 Procedure of Testing Hypothesis
  • Ø 9.6 Application of Hypothesis in Research
  • Ø 9.7Five Steps of Hypothesis Testing

9.1/C2 Introduction:

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Understanding Biyi Bandele’s Burma Boy

Farafina Books

Burma Boy tells the little-known history of Nigerian soldiers who fought in the Chindits, a commando division of the British Army in Burma during the Second World War. The protagonist is Ali Banana, an irrepresible 14-year-old boy who sneaks away from home to join the battle. He is soon deployed with the Thunder Brigade to fight the Japanese in Burma. Dropped unceremoniously into enemy territory with orders to defend a lonely jungle stronghold, Ali Banana and the Thunder Brigade must rely on laughter, camaraderie and sheer faith to survive. Burma Boy is a work of historical fiction based on extensive research and the author’s remembrance of his veteran father’s tales. It describes war and weaponry, booby-traps and bombardment, in often stunning detail, and with much subtlety, humour and humanity. 

Ahmed Maiwada, a Nigerian lawyer and writer has reviewed this book to aid better understanding of the author’s intent. This…

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African Prose Fiction: Problem of Definition


African prose fiction (literature) as a whole has defied a generally acceptable definition. The controversy over definition has been raging over the years, leading different scholars to view African prose fiction from different perspectives. It has become like the proverbial elephant whose description lacked a unified account. Everyone who described the elephant was as everyone felt it. That experience is probably the case of the African prose fiction so far. For an in- depth discourse on African prose fiction, it is pertinent to first understand the key concepts that revolves round the topic.
Prose has been defined as any piece of writing that is built upon structure of sentences as opposed to verse. That is, it has no structural meter or stanzas. M.H. Abram (1999) defines prose as “an inclusive term for all discourse, spoken or written, which is not patterned into the lines either of metric verse or of…

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Criticism and Classification of African Prose Fiction


The question of criticism and classification is one of the vital issues raised at the Ugandan conference of 1962. Just like the controversy trailing definition and language polemics, criticism and classification elicit similar heated arguments. The debate raised some dust hence the question: Was African literature about Africa or about the African experience? What about a non-African who wrote about Africa: did his work qualify as African literature and who is qualified to criticise African literature. According to Ngugu:

The debate which followed (the debate of definition and language at the Ugandan) was animated: was it (African) literature about African or the African experience? Was literature written by Africans? What if an African set his work in Greenland: did he qualify as African literature…Ok: what about Arabic, was it not foreign to Africa? What if a European wrote about Europe in an African language? If…if…if…this or that… (287).

The problem…

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African Prose Fiction and Prose Fiction About Africa


African prose fiction centres on prose works written by Africans about Africa. That is, having Africa as setting and treating issues that relates to Africa. Works written by Africans in diaspora that centres on the living conditions and life of Africans abroad can also be call African prose fiction. On the other hand, prose fiction about Africa has to do with prose works written by non Africans, about Africa. Writers of this type of prose are often foreigners writing about Africa and their experiences in Africa. Prose fiction about Africa often portrayed Africa from an outsider’s perspective. The stories are written through the lens of a foreign observer. More often than not, these writer portrayed Africa in negative light. European writers who wrote about Africa often portrayed the negative side of the continent. In their works, they presented African characters who are primitive and uneducated. A good example is seen…

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Learn English with Demi

direct-indirect-speech-1-728What is DIRECT SPEECH?

Consider the following sentence:

Rina said: “I don’t understand indirect speech. I need explanation about this lesson.”

The given sentence is in direct speech:

– The exact words of the speaker have been put within quotation marks ( ” ” )

– There is a colon ( : ) after ‘said’.

– The first word inside the quotation marks ( ” ” ) starts with a capital letter.

What is an INDIRECT SPEECH then?

Let’s take a look at the following sentence:

Rina said (that) she didn’t understand indirect speech. She needed explanation about that lesson.

In  Indirect speech:

– The quotation marks as well as the colon after said are removed.

– The conjunction ‘that’ introduces to us the words (not exact) spoken by the speaker. However, the latest trend is to drop ‘that’


Get one thing straight…

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Direct and Indirect Speech

Anisa N Anggraeni's

Direct Speech / Quoted Speech

Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech)

Here what a person says appears within quotation marks (“…”) and should be word for word.

For example:

She said, “I dont feel good.” or “I don’t feel good”, she said.

Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn’t use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn’t have to be word for word.

When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too.

For example:

Direct              : “I’m going to the Hospital,” she said.

Indirect            : She said she was going to the Hospital.


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